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Apatites are also a proposed host material for storage of nuclear waste, along with other phosphates.The standard enthalpies of formation in the crystalline state of hydroxyapatite, chlorapatite and a preliminary value for bromapatite, have been determined by reaction-solution calorimetry.
Structural and thermodynamic properties of crystal hexagonal calcium apatites, Ca10(PO4)6(X)2 (X= OH, F, Cl, Br), have been investigated using an all-atom Born-Huggins-Mayer potential by a molecular dynamics technique.
The quadrupole He mass spectrometry systems consist of the following principle components: 1) One Photonmachine 30W Diode Laser and two Photonmachine 75W Diode lasers and a U. Laser continuous-mode Nd-YAG lasers for total fusion He laser extraction, ideal for single-crystal work (see House et al., 2000), 2) two separate all-metal extraction lines equipped with computer-controlled pneumatic Nupro valves and pumped by a combination of ion, turbo and rough pumps, 3) precise volume aliquot systems for spiking sample gas with 3He for isotope dilution, 4) precise volume aliquot systems for delivering a 4He standard with separate depletion tank systems to monitor 4He tank depletion, 5) gas purification system consisting of two SAES NP10 getters and two Janis cryogenic trap capable of separating He from other gases by variable temperature release at 16-37K, and 6) two Blazers Prisma QMS-200 quadrupole mass spectrometer for measuring 3He/4He ratios.
Our helium isotope dilution procedure allows very low-blank ( *reference age is published (U-Th)/He age; sample used by several laboratories as intra- and inter-laboratory age standard.
(U-Th)/He dating of apatite is also well established for use in determining thermal histories and other, less typical applications such as paleo-wildfire dating.
Phosphorite is a phosphate-rich sedimentary rock, that contains between 18% and 40% P The primary use of apatite is in the manufacture of fertilizer – it is a source of phosphorus. Green and blue varieties, in finely divided form, are pigments with excellent covering power.
During digestion of apatite with sulfuric acid to make phosphoric acid, hydrogen fluoride is produced as a byproduct from any fluorapatite content.